In this course, which is the second part of a two-year study of U.S. History that begins in Grade 8, students will study the history of the United States since Reconstruction to the present. Historical content will focus on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to industrialization and urbanization, major wars, domestic and foreign policies of the Cold War and post–Cold War eras, and reform movements including civil rights. Students will examine the impact of geographic factors on major events and analyze causes and effects of the Great Depression. Students will examine the impact of the constitutional issues on American society, evaluate the dynamic relationship of the three branches of the federal government, and analyze efforts to expand the democratic process. Students will describe the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. Students will analyze the impact of technological innovations on the American labor movement. Students will use critical-thinking skills to explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including points of view and historical context.