In Music 4, students identify how the elements of music (melody, harmony, timbre, dynamics, and tempo) affect what a piece of music communicates to a listener. Students label or perform three different examples of rhythm in addition to musical notes such as the eighth note and the sixteenth note. They identify notes on the bass and treble clef. Students learn the difference between sharps and flats and major and minor scales. They create simple melodies with chords and mark tempo, time signature, and signature key. Students explore different musical characteristics and instruments from Africa in addition to Latin American and Celtic music and dance. Finally, students explain how social and cultural contexts influence a musical performance.